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What impact climate change has on viticulture worldwide and how can producers moderate the effects?
Forget what happened in 2012 and 2013. If you want to understand the impact of climate change on viticulture, simply observing yearly snapshots is misleading. Nigel Sneyd, director of International Winemaking at Gallo, argues that “climate change is a along-term phenomenon and people too readily take three-year or at best ten-year trends as unequivocal signs, they should be looking at centuries of data”.
Our climate is naturally variable (some regions getting colder and some hotter) and the change is so slow. Researchers at the University of Southern Oregon carried out extensive research and reported that the average temperature in thirty classic high quality wine producing regions worldwide has risen by 3 degrees in the last 50 years. They also predicted a rise of 2.5 to 4.7 degrees by 2050. Dr Richard Smart, an Australian viticulturist, claimed that just one degree of temperature rise can wipe out an entire grape growing region. However, there is strong evidence that growers are managing to moderate climate change effects successfully through careful vineyard management and location.
For several decades Chilean, Argentinean and South African producers have been taking advantage of unique coastal and altitude conditions that guarantee sustainable production of high quality wines in areas that would otherwise be too hot or arid. Cold ocean currents and cool air coming down from the Andes at night helps to stabilize temperatures and moderate very warm and dry climate with infrequent rainfall.
High temperatures have always been a reality in the Douro. However, Fernando Alves of the Association for the Development of Viticulture in the region warns that “intense exposure to sunlight and repeated periods of drought in recent years have put deep stress on the vine and soil”. One way of tackling this issue is to plant grapes at various elevations. Mr Alves suggests that “one variety that thrives now at 600 meters might be planted at a site 100 meters higher or situated with a different exposure to the sun, and so be coaxed to adapt to its new growing conditions”.
Awareness of climate change on vineyard location is key for sustainable viticulture. For example, on-going research by Prof. Silvia Guidoni of the University of Turin in the vineyards of G.D.Vajra in Piedmont discovered that south facing vineyards that used to have perfect exposure now are too hot in some years. It is west-southwest vineyards that now seem to be more successful as they benefit from the sun taking longer to warm them therefore avoiding reach high temperature exposure.
The way we interact with our environment is directly influenced by climate change. Producers may choose to modify row orientation in order to minimize sunburn. In regions that lack cloud cover, canopy management can be used for better protection and shade with the possibility of overhead trellising. Whereas in cooler climates, open canopy allows required sunlight to reach the grapes and allow full ripeness. For example, in Tasmania, Andrew Hanigan of Derwent Estate chooses to remove leaves at the bottom of the vine in order to reduce methoxypyrazine concentration in his Sauvignon Blanc.
Similarly, delayed pruning encourages delayed budburst, which decreases the risk of spring frost damage. In order to tackle this seasonal damage, Albert Bichot in Chablis uses electric wire in the vineyards and Hattingly Valley, UK sparkling wine producer is experimenting with Frost Guard that can create temperature fluctuation reducing ice crystal formation. In extreme cold temperatures such as in Ontario or Northern China, producers may choose to bury their vines mitigating their bud loss.
By careful selection of clones and rootstocks that are more resistant to extreme temperatures and saline soils, vines can better tackle heat waves or rain storms. Chris Williams of Meerlust in Stellenbosch is experimenting with Paulsen 1103 rootstock for their Merlot as it is better suited to drought conditions and has a very good tolerance to salt.
Adaptation of different grape varieties is also one of the solutions counteracting climate change. For example Touriga Nacional, known for ability to photosynthesize for a much longer period than many other grape varieties, could be planted more widely outside Portugal. Introducing new grape types however could result in a loss of regional character and it may be problematic since many Designated Origin wines are related to the type of grape used. Less restricted areas such as England are already taking an advantage of their freedom. A more Mediterranean climate in southern England has spurred a boom of new plantings of Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier which now account for more than 50% of all England’s plantings and are destined for sparkling wine production.
However, for some growers who are short of money following several bad vintages, it may now be too late to act. It is estimated that over 200 Beaujolais producers are in danger of bankruptcy after frost and hail affected the 2012 harvest particularly badly. As a consequence, many are lacking finances to move from the goblet to the trellis system in order to better manage the vines and rely less on chemical fertilizers and pest control.
The impact on the Champagne region is rather more controversial. There are those such as Arnaud Descôtes, environmental manager for the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne, that believe that global warming is a good thing. There is a higher number of released ‘great’ vintages as the average flowering is now earlier due to warmer climate, hence the grapes are ripening earlier (14 days earlier according to CIVC) and therefore they are less prone to poor weather at the end of the growing season. It also allows more vines to be planted in the region. On the other hand, both Chardonnay and Pinot Noir have a very narrow ideal average temperature band during the growing season (Pinot Noir 14-16°C/Chardonnay 14-18°C) and it is likely that any deviation from this range will produce less distinctive wines lacking full-body elegance.
The situation in Piedmont indicates a similar predicament. Whereas rising temperature had a positive effect overall with a string of good to outstanding vintages since 1996 (except 2002) and significant improvement of lower quality Barolo, unpredictable rainfall is causing significant soil erosion. Despite overall rainfall remaining fairly constant, its unpredictable distribution is creating more very dry and very wet periods, with the local silty soil crusts struggling to cope with the extremes.
Philippe Guigal, chief winemaker of Maison Guigal in Rhone is positive but cautious about climate change. He says that there is “a much better correlation between the physiological maturity and the phenolic ripeness of Syrah in the north of the region now”. 25 years ago chaptalisation was a regular procedure but now grapes have a natural potential strength of 13% to 13.5% that is perfectly satisfactory. However, recent research by Conservation International warns that production in the Rhone will decline as warming climate will make it harder to grow grapes here by 2050.
In Bordeaux many producers have also noticed a slow yet significant change in growing conditions. The shift to a compressed growing season is resulting in uneven grape ripening and sugar accumulation, reflecting in unbalanced yield and low-acid wines that lack complexity. It has been proven by recent research by the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation (GWRDC) supported by Treasury Wine Estate. Open-top chambers were designed where temperature was increased by 2°C above ambient to represent warming projections for wine growing regions under realistic vineyard conditions. The key finding was that there was a shorter harvest period, putting logistical pressure on producers and directly affecting wine quality.
Luckily, vines are much more resilient to climate change than we give them credit for. However, the recent rapid spread of new pests and disease is a visible sign of warmer temperatures according to Dr Richard Smart. The multi-coloured Asian ladybird that taints wines with methoxypyrazines is already causing problems in Canada, Italy, Spain, France and England now too.
Dr Smart also warns that Esca, a type of trunk disease linked to climate warming, could pose a far greater risk to our viticulture than phylloxera. It has been spreading rapidly in Burgundy, particularly affecting Sauvignon Blanc as the fungal pathogens affect a vine’s vigour and life span through delayed and stunted growth. Louis-Fabrice Latour of Maison Louis Latour confirms that Burgundy is producing less wine now than in the 80s and 90s as a result. However, climate change is only one factor blamed for spreading this disease. Sodium arsenite fungicides, historically used to kill trunk disease, were banned 10 years ago due to their destructive impact on soil. In addition, electric pruning shears are increasingly used which make bigger cuts when cutting the old wood, creating more infection.
To think that in 20 to 50 years, Champagne will be over-shadowed by sparkling wine production on the coast of Scandinavia or that Southern Rhone producers will grow pineapples and mangoes instead of their beloved Chateauneuf-du-pape, seems far-fetched. There is still no visible proof that countries such as Sweden, with its mere 50 hectares currently under vine, are benefiting from any of these changes. In fact, wine production in these countries is still very much in its infancy.
Of importance are increasingly extreme weather patterns and their unpredictability. Hail, frost, storms, snowballs the size of potatoes, sudden rainfalls, heat waves and prolonged droughts have a direct affect on vineyards worldwide. Whereas change of temperatures can create new opportunities while influencing vine physiology, berry composition and wine attributes, extreme weather conditions have severe consequences. Sudden hails storm can ruin a chateau’s annual production in a few minutes.
Burgundy’s new regional association (ARELFA) invested this year in a new technology to protect the region from devastating hailstorms. Spurred by continuous crop loss over the last 15 years, ground generators were developed in order to control weather patterns in the sky. Test already showed 50% success and is more affordable (€10 per hectare) than anti-hail rockets.
South African and Australian producers are used to heat waves and droughts and are very much aware that access to water will become increasingly important. Whereas South African growers lack the scope to move polewards, Australian growers are exploring cooler regions such as Tasmania, already showing great potential for sparkling wine production.
Soil salinity is also a threat in Australia and the use of saline tolerant vines that are able to absorb water will become significant. This problem, caused by imbalance of the hydrological cycle or irrigation, is particularly significant in Western Australia, South Australia and Murray-Darling Basin according to CSIRO, the national science agency.
Water management and the sustainability of water sources is on everyone’s mind. Permitting irrigation where currently appellation laws forbid it for the production of high quality wines (PDO and PGI) is an obvious change that producers are bound to fight for.
It has been estimated that in order to produce a bottle of wine, 1,500 litres of water is used, therefore conserving water for use in vineyards and cellars will be a key factor in water resource planning. Growers will be competing with another as well as (and arguably more importantly) other agricultural areas. Areas such as California are considering enforcing mandatory water restrictions due to 7 years of consecutive droughts and after experiencing one of the driest year’s on record in 2013. The price of irrigation water in Riverland, Riverina and Murray Valley has tripled in recent years and 40% of producers are struggling to afford it. But there are smart vineyard practices that help to balance the cost increase. Bryson Brothers at Morambro Creek in Australia use mulch cover which protects evaporation and saves 20-30% of water.
Dramatic and unpredictable vintage changes harm individual producers much more then the overall average temperature rise. As more extreme weather conditions occur greater vintage variations appear, highlighting the importance of innovative viticultural techniques. To become sustainable, producers will need to better understand their vineyard locations and their water sources. There is much work to be done in the vineyards and the emphasis will shift significantly towards the vigneron’s work alongside the winemaker’s. However, there will be plenty of new opportunities and plantings in new areas, that should hush any warnings of global wine shortages.
Spring is here and so the love of rosé resurfaces like daffodils. The supermarket shelves will soon be covered by beautiful pink hues and our glasses will be filled with many different shades of blush. For several months, rosés will rule the world yet again.
Rosé wines are becoming very popular and not only amongst the ladies. We are drinking more rosé than we ever did and all the signs point to further growth. Those new to wine are more likely to pick a bottle of rosé as it is more accessible and palatable more than many reds or whites. The figures reflect this trend, the worldwide production of rosé has increased by 13% in the last 8 years becoming an important category now within the drinks business and accounting for 10% of total wine production (CIVP).
French lead the way as they both produce and drink the biggest share. In fact they consume more than they can produce at the moment. But consumption trends differ very much depending on the country. Americans and Germans are said to be fond of residual sugar whereas French and Spanish prefer dry styles.
So what type of rosé wine drinkers are most Brits? The trend is not as one sided here as the stock on shelves suggests demand for both dry and sweet styles. However, the overriding trend is lighter and more off-dry styles at affordable prices. Indeed, it is the style that leads the category as opposed to the region of origin. This is brilliant news to any winemakers that are willing to listen to consumers and create rosé styles that are in demand.
Whatever the style, Brits are becoming very fond of rosés despite the variable weather. In fact, one in eight bottles of wine bought is rosé now and Brits spend close to £700 million per year on this category (Nielsen).
Despite all this success, there are still many, like me, that would rather have a good bottle of white or red. To me, rosés are like movies that never became a blockbuster. A good cast but the plot lacks depth and interest. The fact that rosés are rarely made in their own right, and despite all the best intentions, quality is compromised as generally only degraded/left-over red varieties are used in production.
A recent blind tasting of 32 top rosés has not persuaded me otherwise. The wines consisted of 2012 and 2013 vintages, priced at premium £15 – £30 and the range was 70% from Provence, and the rest from Loire Valley, Rhone, Bordeaux, Navarra, England, Piedmont, Australia and New Zealand.
The first thing that struck me was the amount of reductive notes (rubber, struck match) and even a couple of cases of reduced taint (cabbage, onion) across this range. To me, the reason why rosés are so successful is due to their attractive colour and seductive perfume. Reduction unfortunately spoils the fun.
What also did not help was that the majority of wines lacked fruit. I would have hoped that even serious rosés such these would offer some fruit pleasure. All the wines were dry, but despite my personal preference I believe that just a touch of residual sugar would lift those hidden (or should I say restrained) aromas and flavours.
However, the packaging didn’t disappoint. In fact I think that these days rosés have amongst the smartest and most aesthetically pleasing packaging, with a clear message and presentation. Colours are so versatile from a pale shade of strawberry to bright cherry lollipop so that everyone can find their preferred shade.
All in all, here are my top 5 rosés from the tasting:
1. Sancerre Rose Chavignol, Dom Laporte 2013 Loire Valley – £16.50 – Lea & Sandeman
2. Chene Bleu 2013 Ventoux (Grenache, Syrah, Cinsault) £15, Justerini & Brooks
3. Domaine des Diables Rose Bonbon 2013 Provence – £13.95 – Lea & Sandeman
4. Domaine Sainte Lucie L’Hydropathe 2013 Provence – £15.95 – Lea & Sandeman
5. Domaine Tempier 2012 Provence – £23.95 – Lea & Sandeman
Have you seen the new Virgin America flight safety video? No? Well 6 million people did through YouTube, 430,000 shared it on Facebook and 17,000 on Twitter, in less than two weeks. All this without even stepping on a plane!
In-flight safety demonstrations are desperately boring. Few of us pay attention and even fewer find them entertaining. They have loads in common with wine talks and presentations. Finding ways to connect with people and the achieving the right tone (whether humorous or aspirational) that will resonate with them is not an easy task.
The wine trade is failing constantly while being routinely blamed for not communicating with their consumers. Frankly, this issue is not new. It has been talked about for years and not much has changed. In fact, it is as bad as ever despite all the communication tools we have available now.
Inside the trade bubble, we all seem to be quite comfortable, boasting of lavish dinners with winemakers, drooling over old vintages and eagerly discussing terroir and minerality. Just mention TCA and twitter will go ballistic. I think we have sucked the marrow out of natural wines, from both viewpoints. What’s next? I can see trunk disease or methoxypyrazines spurring animated conversations for days to come. But as soon as we are asked to engage with punters we get wobbly knees.
The biggest challenge is to see both perspective and there aren’t many so blessed. Let’s hope that John Atkinson MW is wrong in tweeting that “The geek is always a geek. He can never be transformed.”
So why is it that we have not been able to capture the audience as many other industries have done so successfully? Look at spirits for example. With their rapidly growing global consumption – by close to 9% in the last two years – they are literally changing our drinking behaviour.
This success is primarily driven by innovation, creative advertising, digital marketing and celebrity endorsement in spite of the weak global economy. The problem, as I see it, is that many wine professionals focus on changing and educating those new to wine. In fact, what we should be doing is interacting and connecting with them.
In the UK, the highest portion of wine is sold at £4-5 price bracket, the average price of bottle of wine is at £5.15 per bottle, nine in ten will be sourced from the major supermarkets and 60% will be on some type of promotion. If you want to inspire people to drink better wines, this is what you are up against, people not wanting to spend much and discounts offering the strongest incentive.
Talking to consumers at the recent London-based wine fair organised by Spirited Wines/Nicolas, it became very clear that people are just not that interested in wine. Something that Robert Joseph, the ever-controversial wine critic, has been warning us about for a while now.
So there was me equipped (optimistically) with a large-format map of Burgundy and ready with details of soil and oak management for each wine. After all, I was presenting prestigious Albert Bichot wines including Grand Cru Moutonne. As an MW student I was ready for any wine-related questions coming my way.
Well, guess how many people asked me about the Burgundy? How the wines were made? Who made them? Count the fingers on both hands and you would not be far off.
Instead, people were eager to find out about me. Now I am not a particularly exciting or interesting person but many were keen to know why I study wine and what I do. What wines I like and what wines should they buy. We talked about everything and anything – sharing our holiday experiences, comparing our top dining encounters and gossiping about the latest TV shows.
What I learned that people like to talk to wine experts but only if they make them feel comfortable and communicate on the same level in a fun and engaging way. Not trying to blow my own trumpet too much, and mainly based on the punters’ feedback and enthusiasm around my stand, I think I did ok. I guess there was that gorgeous Grand Cru that probably had something to do with it too.
To get that perfect balance between being down-to-earth yet at the same time delivering an aspirational message is a tough nut to crack. A great recent example is the Berry Bro & Rudd ad at the Telegraph. It manages to connect to the reader in a down to earth way and yet be aspirational.
“As well as the odd wine for £9,000 and quite a few wines for £90, we also sell Good Ordinary Claret for £9. It is not the greatest wine ever made, but it is a great wine for £9. For us, wine is not about the price tag, but about passing one simple test: Is it good to drink”
So clever on many different levels. It pricks the pomposity of wine with the £9 price tag but also subtly it says that BBR sell wines that are far more exclusive. It simultaneously appeals to people with a sense for value but also those who aspire to finer wine.
Plenty of articles have been written in the last couple of days reflecting on and mainly disputing the original and rather naive Morgan Stanley piece warning us that the world is facing a wine shortage. Here is a summary of some of the more eloquent responses:
BBC – World faces global wine shortage by Morgan Stanley’s analysts Tom Kierath and Crystal Wang
Time Business & Money – How China Became the Wine World’s Most Unlikely Superpower by Kharunya Paramaguru
Reuters – There’s no global wine shortage by Felix Salmon
Wine Industry Insight – Wine shortage is bull: Here’s why by Lewis Perdue
SFGate – Experts dismiss prediction of global wine shortage by Stacy Finz
Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) – World wine production has increased significantly in 2013 while consumption is stabilising
The Telegraph – Have no fears about a world wine shortage – the glass is still half full by Victoria Moore
Wineanorak – My take on the global wine shortage story by Jamie Goode
Jancis Robinson – The phantom global wine shortage
Decanter – Global wine shortage fears exaggerated, say analysts by Chris Mercer and Ivana Lalovic
“Elegant palate with good minerality and the potential to develop. Nicely understated with firm, fresh fruit and good acidity. Well crafted.” Domaine Jean Bilaud-Simon Chablis Grand Cru Vaudesir £35, Decanter
“Firm, stony mineral nose. Tight-knit palate with a mineral backbone. Powerful and understated.” Domaine Wiliam Fevre Bougros Cote Bouguerots Chablis Grand Cru £40, Decanter
“Accesible, fresh quaffer with bountiful amounts of fruity appeal. It’s elegant, also, with delicate peach aromas and quite a long, mineral-tinged finish.” Sainsbury’s Taste Difference Gavi, Piedmont £7.99, Decanter
“This is classic, zesty Sancerre with a deliciously refreshing structure supporting vibrant, grassy aromas and textbook minerality.” Waitrose In Partnership with Joseph Mello Sancerre, Loire Valley £10.99, Decanter
“Well balanced Douro red at an attractive price, with subtle, spicy oak, good minerality and acidity and tarry, brambly fruit.” Tanners Douro Red, £7.95, Tim Atkin MW
“Subtle, flinty, yet ripe, with good almostGraves-like concentration and notes of gooseberry and minerals.” Reuilly Les Coignons, Denis Jamain, Loire Valley £14.25, Tim Atkin MW
“Lively, bracing, pure mineral nose. The Palate is dry with lovely mineral, citrus, pear and baked apple character. Very precise with a spicy, mineral core. Generous and ripe but with good acidity and a dry finish. Weighty but precise, showing beautiful poise.” Van Volxem Saar Riesling Mosel £15.95, Jamie Goode
“Very bright and fresh, this is a lean, lemony, mineral style of Chardonnay with keen acidity and some subtle toasty notes… There’s a little bit of matchstick minerality here. Tight, fresh and precise with some waxy, pithy complexity. Quite Chablis-like.” Tolpuddle Vineyard Chardonnay Tasmania, Jamie Goode